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The male bias in autism spectrum disorder incidence is among the most extreme of all neuropsychiatric disorders, yet the origins of the sex difference remain obscure. Developmentally, males are exposed to high levels of testosterone and its byproduct, estradiol. Together these steroids modify the course of brain development by altering neurogenesis, cell death, migration, differentiation, dendritic and axonal growth, synaptogenesis, and synaptic pruning, all of which can be deleteriously impacted during the course of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Elucidating the cellular mechanisms by which steroids modulate brain development provides valuable insights into how these processes may go awry. An emerging theme is the role of inflammatory signaling molecules and the innate immune system in directing brain masculinization, the evidence for which we review here. Evidence is also emerging that the neuroimmune system is overactivated in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. These combined observations lead us to propose that the natural process of brain masculinization puts males at risk by moving them closer to a vulnerability threshold that could more easily be breached by inflammation during critical periods of brain development. Two brain regions are highlighted: the preoptic area and the cerebellum. Both are developmentally regulated by the inflammatory prostaglandin E2, but in different ways. Microglia, innate immune cells of the brain, and astrocytes are also critical contributors to masculinization and illustrate the importance of nonneuronal cells to the health of the developing brain. testosterone.

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The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study, we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives (HC) as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls. The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 and 45. HC were used by 32% of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17. Subjects using HC excreted 40% less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p?=?0.005) but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E) ratio was 29% higher in the HC group (p?=?0.016). In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of HC on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of HC should be a mandatory question on the doping control form. testosterone.

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T-2 toxin is one of the mycotoxins, a group of type A trichothecenes produced by several fungal genera including Fusarium species, which may lead to the decrease of testosterone secretion in primary Leydig cells derived from mouse testis. The previous study demonstrated T-2 toxin decrease the testosterone biosynthesis in the primary Leydig cells derived from the mouse testis directly. In this study, we further examined the direct biological effects of T-2 toxin on the process of steroidogenesis, primarily in Leydig cells of mice. Leydig cells of mature mouse were purified by Percoll gradient centrifugation and the cell purity was determined by 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) staining. To examine the decrease in T-2 toxin-induced testosterone secretion, we measured the transcription level of three key steroidogenic enzymes including 3?-HSD-1, cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme, and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein in T-2 toxin/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) co-treated cells. Our previous study showed that T-2 toxin (10(-7), 10(-8), and 10(-9) M) significantly suppressed hCG (10 ng/ml)-induced testosterone secretion. The studies demonstrated that the suppressive effect is correlated with a decrease in the level of transcription of 3?-HSD-1, P450scc, and StAR (p < 0.05). testosterone.

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Testosterone supplementation regimens and clomiphene citrate are efficacious for improving serum total testosterone. No difference in overall hypogonadal symptoms was noted among men on any testosterone supplementation therapy. Despite lower serum total testosterone, men on clomiphene citrate and testosterone gels reported satisfaction similar to that of men treated with testosterone injections. testosterone.

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Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a unique scavenger receptor that mediates the binding and uptake of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) by vascular cells during the development of atherosclerosis. Exposure to ox-LDL induces LOX-1 expression and LOX-1-dependent biological activities, such as activation of NF-?B, a nuclear factor important for signal transduction in inflammation. Accumulating evidence indicates that male hormones may regulate expression of LOX-1 and NF-?B as well as atherogenesis. Deficiency or low levels of the male hormone testosterone promote LOX-1 expression and NF-?B activation, while testosterone replacement therapy reduces the expression of LOX-1 and the activation of NF-?B, thereby protecting the arterial wall against atherogenesis. testosterone.

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Testosterone’s binding to SHBG is a multi-step dynamic process that involves complex allostery within SHBG dimer. FT values obtained using the new model have close correspondence with those measured using equilibrium dialysis. testosterone.

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